Thursday, March 29, 2018

The worldclass arts and crafts of India, created by India's brilliant master craftsmen, are extremely popular across Indian domestic and global luxury markets


All Indian states have their own styles of art and crafts, creating an extraordinary treasure trove of unique craftsmanship. In fact, the rich and exotic appeal of high-quality handicraft goods produced by communities and tribes across different cultures and regions of India ‑ be it through the bold use of colours, patterns, texture or design ‑ is simply awe-inspiring, spanning the unknown, unheard of corners and the remotest interiors of the Indian subcontinent. The stunning beauty of these arts and crafts has not only attracted demand for them in a very big way just from the internal domestic market, but has also enabled this sector to carve a niche in the International Global Markets, making India one of the world's largest exporters and supplier of popular and some of the breathtakingly beautiful handicrafts.

The crafts of India are diverse, rich in history and religion. The crafts of each state in India reflect the influence of different Royal Empires of the past, that have ruled this culturally magnificent country, down the ages in Indian history. Throughout centuries, crafts have been embedded as a culture and tradition within India's extremely creative rural communities.

Interested in buying some of these artifacts of different regions of India for decorating your living room space or office? Or would you like to buy one of these creations of some of the brilliant craftsmen of India, as a lovely gift for Diwali, Raksha Bandhan, Christmas, Anniversary, Birthday, Marriage or Thanks Giving? Here are some posted right underneath for you to explore and choose from, for your easy convenient purchase :





Here is a small selection of some of the stunningly beautiful ethnic arts and crafts of India, collected from multifarious sources, with heartiest thanks to these brilliant craftsmen of India and the dedicated photographers, who've made these images available to the art-loving world :


Brass Oil Lamp of Tamil Nadu




Brass Oil Lamp of Tamil Nadu

Brass Oil Lamp of Tamil Nadu

Chola Bronze Statue of Tanjore, Tamil Nadu, India



Chola Bronze Statue of Tanjore, Tamil Nadu, India



Chola Bronze Statue of Tanjore, Tamil Nadu, India

Pattachitra Painting of Odisha India

Pattachitra Painting of Odisha India

Pattachitra Painting of Odisha India

Applique Garden Umbrella of Pippli in Odisha India

Applique Garden Umbrella of Pippli in Odisha India

Tanjore Painting of Tamil Nadu, India

Tanjore Painting of Tamil Nadu, India

Tanjore Painting of Tamil Nadu, India

Blue Pottery of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Blue Pottery of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Blue Pottery of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Brass Oil Lamp of Tamil Nadu

Brass Oil Lamp of Tamil Nadu













Metal Crafts of different regions of India

Metal Crafts includes metal work using Zinc, Copper, Brass, Silver, Gold etc. Some of the traditional ancient metal handicraft styles of India are Bidriware, Pembarthi, Dhokra, Kamrupi, Moradabadi brassware, Swamimalai bronze, Nachiarkoil brass lamps etc.

Due to its striking inlay art-work, Bidriware is an important export handicraft of India and is prized as a symbol of wealth. The metal used is an alloy of zinc and copper inlaid with thin sheets of pure silver.

Pembarthi metal craft is a handicraft made in Pembarthi, in the Telangana state of south India. These crafts are popular for their exquisite art works. This meticulous art-work of brass flourished during the reign of Kakatiya empire. Kakatiyas extensively used this art-form to adorn chariots and temples.

Dhokra is metal craft using the lost-wax casting technique. This sort of metal casting has been used in India for over 4,000 years and is still used.

Kamrupi Brass and Bell Metal products of Kamrup in Assam are famous for their beauty and utility. The State Museum in Guwahati has a rich collection of these metalic wonders.


Crafts of Bihar

Bihar is renowned worldwide for its cute Madhubani paintings. Bhagalpur paintings, also known as Manjusha Art, are also very well known, and so is the extraordinary delicacy of local quilting.



Rajasthan, renowned worldwide for its Royal heritage, is an Indian state with prominent and well-established craft industry. Craft remains a tradition in Rajasthan, preserved over centuries by the stronghold of the Royal Rajput emperors of the region. Craftsmen in Rajasthan see this not as an occupation for livelihood, but rather as a mark of respect to their glorious heritage. Decorative patterns adorn all art and craft-forms in Rajasthan. The Rajasthani craft industry is iconic to the identity of India, with many of its popular styles arts and crafts reaching the global international markets. Tie-dyeing is an example of how international fashion aesthetics have evolved from these simple, age-old crafts techniques of Rajasthan.

Crafts of Gujarat

Gujarat is renowned for the mesmerizing beauty of its ethnic textiles. Located near the border of Rajasthan, the two states share similarities in crafts culture and identity. The ancient Indus Valley Civilization inhabited the entire region once, which in its turn has influenced the entire textile industry of the region. Hand block printing is a widely used and popular form of textile printing in this region. In Bandhani style, which is a unique Gujarati craft, fabric is tied at different sections before dyeing to create patterns. This art-form through dyeing has emerged from the highly creative rural communities of this Indian state.

Crafts of Assam

In the far eastern region of India is located the state of Assam, a state recognized for its ultra creative use of the local raw materials in textiles and crafts. Assam was one of the states whose craft-work was exhibited in the National Handicrafts and Handloom Museum in 2010, showcased to the then US first lady, Michelle Obama. Production of silk fabrics is iconic of Assamese textile industry. Silk is the most valued raw material of Assam,  It is mostly the local women who weave these silk fabrics, using a domestic loom. Mahatma Gandhi had remarked once that ‘Assamese women are born weavers, they weave fairy-tales in their cloth’. Domestic weaving is an important craft for Assamese women, and their marriage and future is seen to depend upon this brilliant skill. Weaving holds a beautiful cultural value in Assam. The silk and textile industry is also an economic resource to the state with over 25000 families associated with this craft. Cane and bamboo crafts are also unique to Assam.
 
Crafts of South India

The diverse religious beliefs of south India has had a great impact on the crafts of this region of India. The region has seen the rule of various foreign empires such as the Mughal, Portuguese, Dutch, French and British, along with the local Dravidian empires of the great Cholas, Cherans, Pandians, Pallavas, Chalukyas and other Royal Dynasties of the region. Each has left its unique mark and unique style on the traditional local arts crafts and textiles. 

Dravidian style, stone carved temples of Tamil Nadu reflect the influence of the most ancient Hinduism, whilst Roman Catholic churches echo the impact of the British rule. Temple carvings are symbolic of the brilliant craft skills in the Tamil Nadu region. The Meenakshi temple of Madurai Arunachaleshwarar Temple Tiruvannamalai Chidambaram Nataraja Temple etc reveal and prove the extraordinary skills and utmost devotion put into these craft-works by the craftsmen and sculptors of the ancient and medieval times. Each section of Meenakshi temple is a sacred shrine to a Hindu deity. 

North of Tamil Nadu is Karnataka, a region renowned for its wood and stone carving. The forests of this region provide extensive supplies of raw materials, mostly rosewood. For wood workers, crafting magnificent statues for large temples is a major source of income. The forms of characters from Hindu mythology in the statues are most artistically and carefully carved with a chisel by the local craftsmen.


ch text contents througout this blog are based on well-researched aggregated and curated content from innumerable sources. But mostly and most importantly, these contents are based on my own personal experience of untiringly exploring the glorious cultural heritage India, and the ageless timeless ethnic arts, crafts, textiles, temples etc of the whole of India, during my stay across the length and breadth of this vast expansive Indian subcontinent for more than 5 decades of my long adventurous life. I ha( Disclaimer : All images featured in this Blog-post, are the property of their respective owners. Our deepest sense of gratitude to all of them for making this gigantic project a reality. If you see your picture anywhere in this Blog and don't want it here, send us a message with the details and the link to the picture, and we will remove it right away. But at the outset, I just want to let my dearest readers know, that the noble purpose of this Blog, is to promote 'The Glorious Cultural Heritage of India' worldwide, to every nook & corner of the planet, and I would immensely love to see every single one of us, of Indian origin, passionately participating in this Mega-Project. I am right now in the process of adding the web-links to the sources of the innumerable images in this Blog. Till the work reaches completion, I would request the readers to use 'Google Image Search' to trace the source / multiple sources of these images on the web. The rive expressed my deepest gratitude to all the text sources on the 'World-Wide-Web', that have hugely contributed and added to my existing database of knowledge on this subject, by inserting appropriate hyperlinks throughout this blog, to connect my ardent readers from across the globe, to these rich sources of information on India's heritage. So Long, Mala Chandrashekhar )

Tuesday, January 2, 2018

Ivory- Carvings of Rajasthan in Northern India


Rajasthan is counted among the aesthetically richest states of India, which boasts of dazzling arts and crafts. Whether it is lac, stone, leather work or ivory-carving, Rajasthan always has the best of best to offer as a souvenir. 









Ivory-carving, using the tusks of elephants, is the most delicate craft-form that has flourished under the regal patronage in few historical cities of Rajasthan including Udaipur, Jaipur, Bharatpur and Jodhpur. One can find numerous samples of this kind of art-form in the form of cute delicate ivory figures of Hindu gods and goddesses with very minute carving. On top of all this, Jali-work of lace like intricacy is the testimony to the brilliance of ivory carvers.

Ivory carving is not a new craft for India; it has been around for more than 4000 years in this country. Ivory Carving was popular even in the era of ancient and medieval princely states. The texture of ivory is very smooth, and whatever designs the craftsmen desire to create can be easily carved on ivory.

Apart from mesmerizing decorative items for display in living rooms, ivory bangles are yet another prominent and popular item in use.

The historic craft of Ivory carving, now banned and for a good reason too, was perhaps one of the most beautiful part of Rajasthan’s craft culture. As already mentioned, it is also perhaps one of the oldest form of art, as old as 4000 years old at the very least, to have survived till modern era. In fact, mention of ivory carving is even found in the oldest Vedic scriptures of India.

Ivory carving being a soft material is ideal for carving. However, the softness of ivory also makes the carving task difficult for the craftsmen, as the material is prone to easy damage. Nevertheless, the beautiful color of ivory has surpassed all these disadvantages, making the art very popular amongst affluent people of all ages.

Though usually considered a traditional art-form of Rajasthan, ivory-carving has been popular art across the globe since ages. Nevertheless, the art-form remains synonymous with Rajasthan, the state having several princely capitals once upon a time like Bharatpur, Udaipur, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Pali. These historical cities were in fact the hub of this amazingly beautiful art-form.

The recent ban however, winded up the whole of this industry. Many artifacts like showpieces, chess pieces, weapon handles, jewelleries, and even idols of Hindu deities made of ivory, though unusually expensive, were available in abundance in the places mentioned above.

After the ban on ivory by the government, the artisans moved on today to carving artifacts using horn and bone.

( Disclaimer : All images featured in this Blog-post, are the property of their respective owners. Our deepest sense of gratitude to all of them for making this gigantic project a reality. If you see your picture anywhere in this Blog and don't want it here, send us a message with the details and the link to the picture, and we will remove it right away. But at the outset, I just want to let my dearest readers know, that the noble purpose of this Blog, is to promote 'The Glorious Cultural Heritage of India' worldwide, to every nook & corner of the planet, and I would immensely love to see every single one of us, of Indian origin, passionately participating in this Mega-Project. I am right now in the process of adding the web-links to the sources of the innumerable images in this Blog. Till the work reaches completion, I would request the readers to use 'Google Image Search' to trace the source / multiple sources of these images on the web. The rich text contents througout this blog are based on well-researched aggregated and curated content from innumerable sources. But mostly and most importantly, these contents are based on my own personal experience of untiringly exploring the glorious cultural heritage India, and the ageless timeless ethnic arts, crafts, textiles, temples etc of the whole of India, during my stay across the length and breadth of this vast expansive Indian subcontinent for more than 5 decades of my long adventurous life. I have expressed my deepest gratitude to all the text sources on the 'World-Wide-Web', that have hugely contributed and added to my existing database of knowledge on this subject, by inserting appropriate hyperlinks throughout this blog, to connect my ardent readers from across the globe, to these rich sources of information on India's heritage. So Long, Mala Chandrashekhar )

Monday, January 1, 2018

The Sacred Vaikuntha Ekadashi Observed By The Hindus In The Holy Hindu Month of Margaasheersha (Dec-Jan)


VAIKUNTA Ekadashi falls in the month of Marga-seersha (December-January) every year. This is observed with all solemnity in the temples of Lord Vishnu. Fasting is prescribed on all Ekadashis, that is, the 11th day of the lunar fortnight, twice a month. 

Hindu Preserver God MahaVishnu In The Ocean Of Milk In Vaikuntha

Vaikuntha Ekadashi Celebration in tirumala Tirupathi

Vaikuntha Ekadashi Celebrations in Srirangam

Vaikuntha Ekadashi Celebrations in Srirangam

Vaikuntha Ekadashi Celebrations in Srirangam

In this Kali Yuga, even if just one Ekadashi is observed with dispassion, faith and devotion, and if the mind is wholly fixed on Hari, one is freed from the rounds of birth and death. There is no doubt about this. The Hindu Scriptures give us their assurance on this point.

Devotees fast on this day, observe vigil the whole night and do Japa, Hari Kirtan and meditation. Some do not take even a drop of water. Those who are unable to fast completely take some light fruit and milk.

No rice should be taken on Ekadashi days. This is very important. The sweat that fell down from the head of Brahma, the creator in Hinduism, assumed the form of a demon and said to the Lord, “O Lord! now give me an abode to dwell.”

Brahma replied, “O demon! go and dwell in the rice particles eaten by men on Ekadashi day and become worms in their stomach.”

For this reason rice is prohibited on Ekadashi. If one observes the Ekadashi fast regularly, all sins are destroyed. The mind is purified. Devotion gradually develops. Love for God becomes intense. Orthodox people in India observe complete fasting and vigil even on ordinary Ekadashi days. For the devotees of Lord Vishnu, every Ekadashi is a very sacred day.


Fasting controls passion. It checks the emotions. It controls the senses also. It is a great penance. It purifies the mind and the heart. It destroys a multitude of sins. Fasting controls the tongue in particular which is the deadliest enemy of man. Fasting overhauls the respiratory, circulatory, digestive and urinary systems. It destroys all the impurities of the body and all sorts of poisons. It eliminates uric acid deposits. Just as impure gold is rendered pure by melting it in the crucible again and again, so also this impure mind is rendered purer by repeated fasting.

Youngsters are advised to observe fasting whenever passion troubles them. Only then will they have very good meditation, as the mind will be rendered calm. The chief object of fasting is to render the system calm so that one is able to practise meditation rigorously during that period.

Fasting is one of the ten canons of Yoga. However excessive fasting should always be avoided. It will produce weakness. Common sense has to be used.

Diseases that are pronounced incurable by doctors are cured by fasting. Occasionally, a complete fast is greatly desirable for all to keep up good health, to give adequate rest to the internal organs and maintain celibacy. All diseases have their origin in overeating and verily fasting is the only method to cure this.

Complete fasting helps to control sleep. Taking recourse to tea or coffee to control sleep during fasting is not desirable. We will not gain any spiritual strength if we depend on an external agent. During fasting all company should be avoided and time utilised in spiritual practises for our evolution. 

( Disclaimer : All images featured in this Blog-post, are the property of their respective owners. Our deepest sense of gratitude to all of them for making this gigantic project a reality. If you see your picture anywhere in this Blog and don't want it here, send us a message with the details and the link to the picture, and we will remove it right away. But at the outset, I just want to let my dearest readers know, that the noble purpose of this Blog, is to promote 'The Glorious Cultural Heritage of India' worldwide, to every nook & corner of the planet, and I would immensely love to see every single one of us, of Indian origin, passionately participating in this Mega-Project. I am right now in the process of adding the web-links to the sources of the innumerable images in this Blog. Till the work reaches completion, I would request the readers to use 'Google Image Search' to trace the source / multiple sources of these images on the web. The rich text contents througout this blog are based on well-researched aggregated and curated content from innumerable sources. But mostly and most importantly, these contents are based on my own personal experience of untiringly exploring the glorious cultural heritage India, and the ageless timeless ethnic arts, crafts, textiles, temples etc of the whole of India, during my stay across the length and breadth of this vast expansive Indian subcontinent for more than 5 decades of my long adventurous life. I have expressed my deepest gratitude to all the text sources on the 'World-Wide-Web', that have hugely contributed and added to my existing database of knowledge on this subject, by inserting appropriate hyperlinks throughout this blog, to connect my ardent readers from across the globe, to these rich sources of information on India's heritage. So Long, Mala Chandrashekhar )

Saturday, December 30, 2017

Allahabad Kumbha Mela (Sacred River Festival of India ) : Greatest Congregation of Humans on Earth

Kumbha Mela inscribed on the UNESCO's Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, is a mass Hindu Pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred or holy river. Traditionally, four fairs in India, held once in 12 years, are widely recognized as the Kumbha Melas; the Haridwar Kumbh Mela, the Allahabad Kumbh Mela, the Nashik-Trimbakeshwar Simhastha, and Ujjain Simhastha. These four fairs are held periodically at one of the following places by rotation: Haridwar, Allahabad (Prayag), Nashik  (Trimbak), and Ujjain. The main festival site is located on the banks of a river: the Ganges (Ganga) at Haridwar; the confluence (Sangam) of the Ganges, Yamuna and the invisible Sarasvati at Allahabad; the Godavari at Nashik; and the Shipra at Ujjain. Bathing in these rivers is believed in Hinduism to cleanse a person of all sins.







The exact date of Kumbha is determined as per Vikram Samvat calendar and the principles of Jyotisha of the Hindus.

The priests at other places have also claimed their local River Festivals to be Kumbh Melas. For example, the Mahamaham festival at Kumbakonam, held once in 12 years, is also portrayed as a Kumbh Mela.

The exact age of the Kumbha Melas is uncertain. According to Hindu mythology, Lord Vishnu, the Hindu God of preservation dropped drops of Amrita (Nectar) at four places, while transporting it in a Kumbha (Pot). These four places are identified as the present-day sites of the Kumbh Mela

These festivals are amongst the highest congregation of religious pilgrims on the planet. There is no precise method of ascertaining the number of pilgrims, and the estimates of the number of pilgrims bathing on the most auspicious day may vary. An estimated 120 million people visited Maha Kumbh Mela in 2013 in Allahabad.


The Allahabad Kumbh Mela is a festival held every 12 years at Prayag (Allahabad) in India. The exact date of Kumbh, as already mentioned, is determined according to Hindu astrology. The Mela is held when Jupiter is in Taurus and the Sun and the Moon are in Capricorn. The fair involves ritual bathing at Triveni Sangam, the confluence of three rivers Ganga, Yamuna and the mythical Sarasvati. The last Allahabad Kumbh Mela took place in 2013; the next one is scheduled in 2025.

The Mela is one of the four fairs (River Festivals) held in India, traditionally recognized as Kumbh Melas.

This Kumbh is considered to be the most significant of all, as it marks the direction of Wisdom and Light. This is the place of Hindus where the Sun, symbolizing wisdom rises. Creation of the universe is supposed to have originated here and it is supposed to be the center of the earth, as per ancient Hindu beliefs.


Kumbha History :
According to Hindu mythology, its origin is found in one of the most popular Puranas, the Bhagavata Purana. The Samudra Manthan (Churning of the ocean of milk) of the Hindu gods and demons, is mentioned in the Hindu mythologies Bhagavata Purana, Vishnu Purana, the Mahabharata, and the great epic Ramayana. Finally after this entire churning process, God Dhanwantari appeared with a Kumbha (Pot) of nectar in his palms. However, when the Kumbha appeared, a fight ensued between the gods and the demons. To prevent the elixir of immortality from the demons, the gods ran away with the Kumbha to hide it away and they were chased by the demons. For twelve days and twelve nights the Devas (gods) and Asuras (demons) fought in the sky for the pot of Nectar. It is believed that during the battle, the drops of Nectar fell down from the Kumbha at four places; Allahabad (Prayag), Haridwar, Ujjain and Nashik. Because 12 days of gods are believed to be equal to 12 years for humans in Hinduism, the Kumbh Mela is celebrated once every 12 years in each of the four places; banks of river Godavari in Nasik, river Shipra in Ujjain, river Ganges at Haridwar, and at the  confluence of Ganges, Yamuna and Saraswati in Allahabad, where the drops are believed to have fallen.



Several stampedes have occurred at the Allahabad Kumbha Mela in 1840, 1906, 1954, 1986 and 2013. The deadliest of these was the 1954 stampede, which left 800 people dead.

( Disclaimer : All images featured in this Blog-post, are the property of their respective owners. Our deepest sense of gratitude to all of them for making this gigantic project a reality. If you see your picture anywhere in this Blog and don't want it here, send us a message with the details and the link to the picture, and we will remove it right away. But at the outset, I just want to let my dearest readers know, that the noble purpose of this Blog, is to promote 'The Glorious Cultural Heritage of India' worldwide, to every nook & corner of the planet, and I would immensely love to see every single one of us, of Indian origin, passionately participating in this Mega-Project. I am right now in the process of adding the web-links to the sources of the innumerable images in this Blog. Till the work reaches completion, I would request the readers to use 'Google Image Search' to trace the source / multiple sources of these images on the web. The rich text contents througout this blog are based on well-researched aggregated and curated content from innumerable sources. But mostly and most importantly, these contents are based on my own personal experience of untiringly exploring the glorious cultural heritage India, and the ageless timeless ethnic arts, crafts, textiles, temples etc of the whole of India, during my stay across the length and breadth of this vast expansive Indian subcontinent for more than 5 decades of my long adventurous life. I have expressed my deepest gratitude to all the text sources on the 'World-Wide-Web', that have hugely contributed and added to my existing database of knowledge on this subject, by inserting appropriate hyperlinks throughout this blog, to connect my ardent readers from across the globe, to these rich sources of information on India's heritage. So Long, Mala Chandrashekhar )

Tuesday, October 17, 2017

* Vedic Mathematics, Ancient Indian Mathematics, & Some Of India's Greatest Mathematicians




Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj : Shankaracharya of Govardhan Math Puri

Vedic Mathematics is the name given to an ancient Indian system of calculation, which was rediscovered from the Immortal Hindu Scriptures Vedas between 1911 and 1918, by His Holiness Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj (1884-1960), Shankaracharya (Pontiff) of Govardhan Math, Puri. According to Tirthaji, the whole of Vedic Mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras, or Word-Formulae. For example, "Vertically and Crosswise" is one of these Sutras. These formulae are intended to describe the way the mind naturally works, and are therefore supposed to be a great help in directing the student to the appropriate method of solution. The Western Scholars say, none of these Sutras has ever been found in Vedic literature, nor are its methods consistent with known Mathematical Knowledge from the Vedic Era.

Perhaps the most striking feature of Tirthaji's system is its coherence. The whole system is interrelated and unified. The general multiplication method, for example, is easily reversed to allow one-line divisions, and the simple squaring method can be reversed to give one-line square roots. And, these are all easily understood. This unifying quality is very satisfying, it makes arithmetic easy and enjoyable, and it encourages innovation.

Difficult mathematical problems and huge sums can often be solved immediately by Tirthaji's methods. These striking and beautiful methods are a part of a system of mathematics, which Tirthaji claims to be far more methodical than the modern system. 

Vedic Mathematics is said to manifest the coherent and unified structure of arithmetic, and its methods are complementary, direct and easy.

The simplicity of Tirthaji system means that calculations can be carried out mentally, though the methods can also be written down. There are many advantages in using a flexible, mental system. Students can invent their own methods; they are not limited to one method. This leads to more creative, interested and intelligent students.

Interest in the Tirthaji's system is growing in education, where mathematics teachers are looking for something better, and finding the Vedic system to be the answer. Research is being carried out in many areas, including the effects learning the Tirthaji system has on children; developing new, powerful but easy applications of these Sutras in arithmetic and algebra.

The real beauty and effectiveness of the Tirthaji's system cannot be fully appreciated without practising the system. One can then see why its enthusiasts claim that it is the most refined and efficient calculating system known.

Vedic Mathematics refers to a technique of calculation based on a set of 16 Sutras, or aphorisms, as algorithms and their Upa-Sutras or corollaries derived from these Sutras. Its enthusiasts advance the claim that any mathematical problem can be solved mentally with these Sutras.

Swami Bharati Krishna Tirthajee Maharaj of Govardhan Mutt, Puri wrote a book on Vedic Mathematics, and first published it in 1965. It contains a list of ancient Indian Mental Calculation Techniques claimed to be based on the sacred Hindu Scriptures Vedas of  India.  Its characterization as Vedic Mathematics has been criticized by many academicians. Scholars emphatically argue that such mathematical Sutras are non-existent in the Vedas, and are not traceable anywhere in these Eternal Scriptures of the Hindus.
Academicians feel that Tirthaji had liberally interpreted three-word Sanskrit phrases to associate them with arithmetic.

Tirthaji claimed that he found the Sutras after years of studying the Vedas & deep meditation. However, the Vedas do not contain any of the Vedic Mathematics Sutras, mentioned in this book. Tirthaji’s description of Mathematics as a Vedic Science is most commonly criticised on the basis that, thus far, none of the Sūtras can be found anywhere in Vedic literature. When challenged by Professor K.S. Shukla to point out the Sutras in question in the Parishishta of the Atharvaveda, Shukla reported that Tirthaji said the sixteen Sutras were not included in standard editions of the Parishishta, and that they occurred in his own Parishishta and not any other.


"The Vedas are Infinite", says Paramacharya Shri Chandrashekharendra Saraswathi Swamigal of Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham, "If the cosmos of sound (Shabda-Prapanca) enfolds all creation and what is beyond it, it must naturally be immensely vast. However voluminous the Vedas are, one might wonder whether it would be right to claim that they embrace all activities of the universe. "Anantah Vai Vedah", the Vedas themselves proclaim so (the Vedas are endless). Only about a thousand Shakhas or recensions belonging to the four Vedas have been revealed to them."

Why is it difficult then for us to believe that a part of the Vedas, which TirthaJee calls 'Vedic Mathematics' was revealed to him during his hours of communion while in silent deep meditation, like some of the Immortal Sages of Vedic times? How do we claim that all the Infinite Vedas have already been revealed to the seers in the perishable volumes that we have in our possession today? On what basis? The arguments of the scholars, with the reason they provide to support their view, sound really funny. With our finite mind & finite intellect, how do we claim to have an answer for everything, for everything in the Cosmos that's INFINITE, without a begining, without an end?

Although the book was first published in 1965, Tirthaji had been propagating the techniques all over the globe since much earlier, through lectures and classes. He wrote the book in 1957. It was published in 1965, five years after his death, as a book of 367 pages in forty chapters. Reprints were made in 1975 and 1978. Several reprints have been made since the 1990s.

Some of the scholars have pointed out that while Tirthaji's methods were not unique, they may have been invented by him independently, as Tirthaji held an MA in mathematics, & also that the term Vedic Mathematics is incorrect, and there are other texts that can be used to teach a correct account of the Indian Mathematics during the Vedic period.


Proponents of Vedic Mathematics however argue that the methods are not merely mathematical tricks and that there is an underlying psychology because the aphorisms describe personal approaches to problem-solving. As pedagogic tools, the methods are useful because they invite students to deal with strategies.


According to Scholars, Indian Mathematics  emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century. In the classical period of Indian Mathematics (400 AD to 1200 AD), important contributions were made by Mathematicians & Astronomers like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Bhaskara II & Varahamihira. The decimal number system in use today, was first recorded in Indian Mathematics . Indian Mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmetic, and algebra. In addition, trigonometry was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there. These mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East, China, and Europe and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics.

Ancient and medieval Indian mathematical works, all composed in Sanskrit, usually consisted of a section of Sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated with great economy in verse, in order to aid memorization by a student. This was followed by a second section consisting of a prose commentary (sometimes multiple commentaries ) that explained the problem in more detail and provided justification for the solution. In the prose section, the form (and therefore its memorization) was not considered so important as the ideas involved. All mathematical works were orally transmitted until approximately 500 BCE; thereafter, they were transmitted both orally and in manuscript form.

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* Hitopadesha : Ancient Indian Fables Of Worldly Wisdom & Morals On Political Affairs In Simple Elegant Sanskrit Language


Hitopadesha (Sanskrit: हितोपदेश) meaning "Beneficial Advice" ) is an Indian text in Sanskrit language consisting of enjoyable stories with animal and human characters. It incorporates maxims, worldly wisdom and morals on political affairs in a simple and elegant language. This Hindu text has been very popular, widely translated into many Indian languages, as well as languages found in Southeast Asia, Middle East and Europe.

Interested in buying Hitopadesha to narrate these stories of practical wisdom to the little ones in the family? Here are a few books for the readers to purchase and explore :



A mere look at the following fun-filled pictures of India's Hitopadesha tales, would depict how beautifully our Indian sages in the most hoary past, have used the innocent animals and birds of the Great God's creation, to convey the practical Truths and Wisdom of human-life to guileless children, through entertaining stories, so that these lessons of Wisdom and Eternal Truths get indelibly impressed in their most impressionable tender minds, right in their childhood years, and is a great guide to them in their later years to lead an intelligent smart life.


















Little is known about the origin of Hitopadesha. The surviving text is believed to be from the 12th-century. Its oldest manuscript found in Nepal has been dated to the 14th-century, and its content and style has been traced to the ancient Sanskrit treatise called Panchatantra from 100 BCE to 500 CE. Dating this ancient work has been very problematic.

The purpose of creating Hitopadesha has been to encourage proficiency in Sanskrit language, and knowledge of wise behaviour in life. This is done through the telling of moral stories, in which we see birds, beasts and humans interacting in the body of the stories. Interest is maintained through the device of enclosed narratives in which a story is interrupted by an illustrative tale before resuming the story once again.

The Hitopadesha is quite similar to the ancient classic Sanskrit text Panchatantra, another widely popular collection of fables with morals. Many scholars consider Hitopadesha to be a version or derivative work of the Panchatantra.

The Hitopadesha is organized into four books, with a preface section called Prastavika. The opening verse expresses reverence to the Hindu God Ganesha and Goddess of Learning Saraswati. There are several versions of the text available today, though the versions are quite similar unlike the other ancient and medieval period Hindu texts, wherein the versions vary significantly. The shortest version has 655 verses, while the longest has 749 verses. 

In his own introductory verses, Narayana, who is believed by many to be the author of Hitopadesha, acknowledges and attributes his work to the older text Panchatantra. In his ninth verse, he states that he is indebted to the Panchatantra and 'Another Work'. The latter is unknown but possibly it's Hindu Dharmasastras
 
Hitopadesha differs by having only four divisions to the Panchatantra's five.


( Disclaimer : All images featured in this Blog-post, are the property of their respective owners. Our deepest sense of gratitude to all of them for making this gigantic project a reality. If you see your picture anywhere in this Blog and don't want it here, send us a message with the details and the link to the picture, and we will remove it right away. But at the outset, I just want to let my dearest readers know, that the noble purpose of this Blog, is to promote 'The Glorious Cultural Heritage of India' worldwide, to every nook & corner of the planet, and I would immensely love to see every single one of us, of Indian origin, passionately participating in this Mega-Project. I am right now in the process of adding the web-links to the sources of the innumerable images in this Blog. Till the work reaches completion, I would request the readers to use 'Google Image Search' to trace the source / multiple sources of these images on the web. The rich text contents througout this blog are based on well-researched aggregated and curated content from innumerable sources. But mostly and most importantly, these contents are based on my own personal experience of untiringly exploring the glorious cultural heritage India, and the ageless timeless ethnic arts, crafts, textiles, temples etc of the whole of India, during my stay across the length and breadth of this vast expansive Indian subcontinent for more than 5 decades of my long adventurous life. I have expressed my deepest gratitude to all the text sources on the 'World-Wide-Web', that have hugely contributed and added to my existing database of knowledge on this subject, by inserting appropriate hyperlinks throughout this blog, to connect my ardent readers from across the globe, to these rich sources of information on India's heritage. So Long, Mala Chandrashekhar )